Autumn is probably the busiest time in our preserve. One might think that with the growing season behind us, things would settle down. In truth, September through November brings hundreds of children visiting for field trips, and hundreds of acres of habitat needing attention in preparation for next year’s growing season. We are teachers and wildlife farmers. We plant crops of trees and wildflowers, and raise livestock of songbirds, bugs, and frogs and deer mice. We are happy to do what we do, and to share it with others.
Like farmers, we are dependent on the soil and weather. We try to match what we plant with appropriate places on the land, and then we pray for a little help from the weather to help things along. Its been a good year, and inspired by that good fortune, we are ambitiously planning for next year. In our forests, we’ve been pleased with the growth of the trees and shrubs planted the last several years. At this stage, we tend to them mostly to protect them from deer. Now, we’re preparing to order more than 2,000 trees and shrubs to be planted next year in areas susceptible to the dreaded emerald ash borer. This winter and spring, we’ll be removing invasive shrubs to make room for the plantings, which is made possible by a grant from the US Forest Service- new partners in our efforts to best manage our special place in the world. We are very grateful for the help.
Along the East and West Twin Rivers, with the help of the Wisconsin DNR, we will be sowing seeds of native wetland plants- sedges, rushes, and wildflowers, in areas where invasive Phragmites grass was removed. Like other habitats, wetlands thrive on a diversity of plants, so the more we can enhance that diversity with native species, the more wildlife, including waterfowl and fisheries, will benefit.
In several large fields we are tending to thousands of milkweed plants for the butterflies, and sowing the seeds of many other native wildflowers that they and other pollinators will benefit from. Other fields large and small are being prepared for planting next year. In the last couple of weeks we’ve also planted 1,300 potted wildflowers around our headquarters, in our butterfly garden, and along Mariner’s Trail, with the help of many high school students and volunteers.
Fall is an excellent time for such work. It is the time when many plants shed their seeds which naturally fall to the soil where freezing and thawing buries them over the winter. They need a period of cold in order to mature and set their biological alarm clocks for germination in the spring. The cool weather also reinvigorates our own physiology, making this a much more pleasant and effective time to get work done.
There are so many opportunities to make things better in this world. I suppose its a matter of comparison- certainly at one time our area was covered with native plants and abundant wildlife. Then that was altered – the “cutover” of Wisconsin is a great example where forests were nearly removed one section at a time. Thankfully, everything wasn’t cut, and nature has a capacity to rebound – aided by us.
I saw an old photograph of my neighborhood a few days ago- the landscape was stark and barren, nearly treeless, bisected by dirt roads and dotted with a few houses. Now there are more houses, but there are also significantly more trees and shrubs than there were 100 years ago. A lot of the shrubs are non-native invasives, but over time those can be removed and replaced with better ones. The same goes for Woodland Dunes- there is actually more forest within the bounds of the preserve than there was in 1938, and there is more than we can do to improve it.
Everyone, even if they only own a flower pot, can be a wildlife farmer. But you have to be comfortable with doing the work of sowing while the wild things do the reaping- which is just fine with us.
photo- a field at Woodland Dunes planted with wildflowers, evening primrose and tall coneflowers
We’re now firmly in the midst of another seasonal tug-of-war. On one hand summer hangs on meteorologically, but at the same time, biologically fall is moving forward relentlessly. Birds, bats, and insects are all streaming to places where in the coming months will be much more friendly toward them. On clear, calm nights birds cross the skies like unseen meteors, revealed only by their brief call notes and radar images. During the day, dragonflies and butterflies make a more leisurely but equally difficult journey.
Right now, common green darners are passing through by the thousands. They are the large dragonflies we often see around here- males are green and blue, and females and juveniles are green and brownish. They migrate along the shore southward in the fall, eating smaller insects as they do and being eaten by birds such as American kestrels which migrate at the same time. At times, the dragonflies seem only intent on traveling, all of them moving southwestward in unison. At other times, they must really need to refuel, and they are seen criss-crossing meadows in search of smaller, more vulnerable members of their insect relations to be snatched from the air and eaten. As a human, I always appreciate dragonflies pursuing and consuming the deer flies and mosquitoes which hover around me. At the same time, I can only imagine how terrifying it would be to be caught by one of those remarkable predators and crushed in their huge sideways jaws.
The highlight in terms of insect migration is that of the monarchs. One wonders how this species developed such an ambitious means of surviving winter – traveling all the way to central Mexico while other species instead cope with winter in their chrysalis, in the leaf litter, or at the end of a much shorter migratory journey. I’m sure that in the end it’s a good thing that all butterflies, or animals of all sorts, don’t behave in the same way so that too many aren’t at risk as the result of the same catastrophic event, such as a storm or fire.
Whatever the cause, monarchs have become dependent on the success of a very long fall journey, just as they have become dependent on the common milkweed as a host plant over the last million years or so. People have changed the world, and virtually all of the eastern monarchs winter on just a few acres of habitat in Mexico, habitat that is shrinking because of logging and converting it to farmland. At the same time, there are fewer milkweed plants here in the midwest. Milkweed was once considered the most important agricultural weed. As a result, the population of monarchs is only 10% of what it used to be. And this happened in my lifetime.
Its important to recognize this and cherish every monarch you see passing along our Lakeshore. Plant a few milkweeds if you have any room for a patch. A wonderful example is at the Lester Public Library in Two Rivers, where they have just established plantings for butterflies and saw almost immediately how important and attractive those plantings were.
A couple of years ago, we restored a wetland at Woodland Dunes, and volunteers saved about 1,500 monarch caterpillars before we excavated the site (which was again planted with milkweed and other native plants). They were raised to butterflies, and some were tagged before they were released at the end of summer. A few weeks ago we received word that one of them, UEJ 963, made it all the way to El Rosario, Mexico, a distance of 2,254 miles, where it was found. We marvel at the ability of small birds to travel distances like that, let alone an insect that is as fragile as if it were made of paper. The simultaneous simplicity and power of this is miraculous ( and a large part of what makes nature study so compelling).
The monarchs began migrating in early August, and large numbers have still been seen moving recently. It’s been a good growing season, and I think a good summer for monarchs around here. As they leave us on their incredible travels, we can only hope that enough will survive to keep the species going so that our children and grandchildren and all of the other lives monarchs touch can benefit from them.
photo of monarch butterflies gathered at the Lester Public Library in Two Rivers
As I think about it, the land seems to first wake up in springtime in the forest, starting with the wildflowers that erupt from the ground in shades of white, lavender, pink, and yellow. Their life and color seem to flow outward as spring and summer progress to the meadows and roadsides which slowly green up then bloom with even greater intensity. The hot days of summer can be hard on them, but these cooler times with moist mornings seem to urge plants to flower with enthusiasm before the cold sets in.
Three groups are particularly showy this time of year: sunflowers, goldenrods, and asters. All of them produce many hundreds or thousands of flowers on a single plant, sometimes grouping many into what appears to be a single bloom. There are hundreds of species of these plants and they are noticeable by intent. They are also vitally important to many animals.
All of them belong to the order of plants called Asterales, within which there are nearly a dozen families of plants. It is fascinating to follow how scientists are trying to determine how living things evolved based on common genetic traits. In this case, it’s interesting to note that the flowers of the Asterales seem to have a common ancestor which was a woody tree or shrub, even though few of the existing members of the order are as such now.
The familiar goldenrods here belong to the genus Solidago and include the aggressive Canada goldenrod of fields, the grass-leaved goldenrod, and stiff goldenrod, a favorite for wildflower restoration projects. All are native plants, and if you look closely you will find many bees, wasps, and soldier beetles seeking pollen on the flower heads. You may also notice bumps (galls) on the stems where fly or moth larvae have made a home. Sometimes a lovely goldenrod crab spider waiting to ambush prey, or a large black and yellow garden spider in an orb web between stems can be seen.
The sunflowers, yellow and familiar, sometimes interbreed and can be hard to tell apart. They are smaller cousins to the giant domestic sunflowers we have engineered for cultivation. The woodland sunflower, downy sunflower, and tall sunflower are a few of the many species that are blooming now, along with a number of related coneflowers and others. They too, are very attractive to bees and butterflies. Goldfinches are often present to feed on the insects, and later the sunflower seeds when they first ripen.
The white, blue, and purple asters recently appearing add variety to all the yellow in the native landscape created by the goldenrods and sunflowers. In sunflowers and asters, what appears to be a single flower is actually many small flowers arranged in a disc-shaped spiral, surrounded by sepals which look like they should be petals. New England asters produce the lovely purple bouquets we see now in meadows. Sky blue asters and smooth asters are instead a light blue color, and there are many species of little white asters which can be hard to identify. One, the panicled aster, fills some of the swales at Woodland Dunes with tiny which blooms that can be covered with bumblebees and other beneficial insects. One hardly notices the plants until they suddenly bloom in September, but when they do, the insects are waiting to feed on some of the last pollen and nectar of the growing season.
These common wildflowers fuel the last activities of insects in the fall- insects which feed the migrating birds and dragonflies struggling to reach their winter homes. At the same time they color the world around us, something that for some reason people seem to appreciate. Perhaps we unconsciously realize the importance of their blooming to the natural world and our well-being.
photos-Canada goldenrod, woodland sunflower, New England aster
Written by Nancy Nabak, Communications Coordinator
Before food becomes food, what does it sound like? This may sound like an odd question, but in actuality, much of the time it sounds like a buzz. According to the US Department of Agriculture, one out of every three bites of food we eat exists because of pollinators, such as bees, flies, and even butterflies.
Unfortunately, there is a major global decline in the pollinator population that started at the end of the twentieth century and continues today. A list of possible reasons for the decline range from agricultural practices where native wildflowers are removed, pesticide exposure, to parasites, pathogens, and climate change. Our need to have a nicely groomed, solid green lawn instead of native wildflowers also adds to this equation. We all desire nice lawns, but this may be the time where we redefine what “nice” means.
A group of five of us decided to take on this large issue in our own little corner of the world yesterday. Two Woodland Dunes staff members and 3 volunteers went into a secluded area on the preserve with over 100 native plants that are known to be good for pollinators and started planting. On Monday, students from the Two Rivers High School will be planting hundreds more. Eventually, 1,200 native wildflowers will be in the ground, thanks to a grant from the Bayer, Feed A Bee program. The new plots are being established specifically to offer increased habitat and nutrition sources for local pollinators.
Creating more bee food on Woodland Dunes property is important in taking steps to reverse the pollinator decline, but also because historically, it’s been home to a variety of bee species. One such bee is the rusty-patched bumblebee, a pollinator that has been found in Manitowoc County and was considered common 30 years ago. The rusty-patched is known to pollinate at least 65 varieties of plant species. It is now listed as endangered.
Fortunately, pollinator corridors, plots and “stepping stones” are increasing in popularity. Woodland Dunes is collaborating with Still Bend, the Frank Lloyd Wright house in Two Rivers, to develop a native landscaping plan in order for it to become a “pollinator showcase.” The idea, according to Michael Dittmer, Still Bend owner, is to inspire other homeowners in the area to add pollinator-friendly plants to their landscaping. We will also be donating and planting wildflowers in the corridor along Mariner’s Trail. This isn’t a new idea, but it’s one worth spreading. Seattle Washington has responded to the decline creatively. A local artist, Sarah Bergmann, designed a “Pollinator Pathway” on a mile-long, city-owned grass strip between the street and sidewalk. Citizens living along this street adopt portions of it, planting native wildflowers and committing to takecare of their areas. Their goal is to attract pollinators in an urban setting and eventually connecting them to a larger green space.
Looking at the pollinator decline as a whole can be overwhelming, but if we realize that many small corners of the world are being taken care of by collaborating partnerships, it gives us a chance to feel hope. So let’s put our garden gloves on, some native wildflowers in the soil, and feed some bees!
photos by Nancy Nabak: volunteer Bob Turnbull helping plant wildflowers; bee on a native aster flower at Woodland Dunes
Most people that I know enjoy being outdoors, and feel that it is good for them to do so. Like other aspects of nature, it is interesting to study the interaction of people and the world around them and examine how we feel about the outdoors, and each other. For those of us who work as environmental teachers, it motivates us to find new ways to get people outside.
In January of this year, a national study was conducted to better understand women’s relationship and attitude towards the outdoors. The results showed three-fourths of women felt they are under more pressure to conform to socials norms than men. However, they view spending time outdoors as a way to escape these pressures and the majority of women want to spend more time outside. The women surveyed also felt liberated when they were in nature and eighty-five percent also felt being outdoors positively impacted their overall well-being.
Six in ten women surveyed felt that men’s interests in outdoor activities are taken more seriously that women’s. Role models are hard to come by, as sixty-three percent of women were unable to name a female outdoor role model. At first, I found this surprising, but once I took a look around me, I have to agree. The media is full of images of men rock climbing, canoeing and camping.
The study also concluded something we’ve known for years: appreciation for the outdoors starts young. Young children who spend ample time in nature are more likely to be active and care about the outdoors when they are adults. Girls that spend time outside are also more likely to place value on adventure. Beyond ample time in nature, young girls (and all children) need a mentor to guide them and share in their outdoor experiences. In the study specific to women, the majority named their mother as their top female role model and those encouraged to spend time outside as young girls were twice as likely to report their mother was the one encouraging them.
Nature should be a level playing field that everyone can explore and enjoy. Woodland Dunes and the Ice Age Trail Alliance have partnered to bring the community a fun program to encourage women and girls to spend time outside. This program is called “Be a Nature Princess….at Any Age!” and will take place the morning of Saturday, November 4th. Grandmothers, aunts, mothers and friends are encouraged to bring the young girls in their lives for a royally good time! The majority of the program will take place outdoors on a portion of the Ice Age Trail. We’ll be breaking stereotypes and getting dirty while we explore the natural kingdom. Go girl power! For more information about this program, contact Woodland Dunes Nature Center.
This program is part of a series of programs organized by the Ice Age Trail Alliance called “Force of Nature: Trailtessa Retreats.” The series offers a variety of programs encouraging women to experience adventure, freedom and nature on the Ice Age Trail. Topics include outdoor yoga and mindfulness, art, trail running and even invasive species removal.
Spending time in nature with all children is important, however there needs to be more effort to engage girls and women in the outdoors. I urge you to be a role model and spend time outside with your daughters and granddaughters. Invite her to hike, bike, jump in puddles or catch bugs. Show her how to dig into the soil, climb a tree or kayak. The Lakeshore is a playground for all ages.
-Written by Jessica Johnsrud, Education Coordinator