Ripples 11/9/17

photo of common buckthorn

common buckthorn with berries

Written by Jen Klein, Land Management Coordinator

I am among those who question every year why I live where there are four seasons.  Don’t get me wrong, I love watching the leaves change color, and even enjoy the snow.  However, it seems the negative always tries to creep to the surface, and the changing seasons first bring thoughts of cold temperatures and white knuckle driving in icy and snowy conditions.  Slowly, however, I acclimate myself to the temperature change, finding it easier every day to throw on that extra layer of clothes.  Then I remind myself of the beauty of the seasons, as well as the unique activities that can be enjoyed during each season.  Snow shoeing, apple picking, a fall hike, a day spent in the woods perhaps in a tree stand, all lend to being immersed in the natural world around us.  

Sometimes we get so focused on something that we forget to step back and look at the bigger picture.  One of my responsibilities as land manager at Woodland Dunes is controlling the many invasive species which threaten the native species.  Mostly we are looking at plants, such as Japanese barberry, various honeysuckle species, and common and glossy buckthorn.  While we know these plants can out-compete our native trees and shrubs, their impacts extend further than that.  I learned a few years ago that Japanese barberry creates a different micro-climate underneath it than what is present surrounding it.  This warmer and more humid space is favorable to the survival of mice, which are hosts for the ticks which carry lyme disease.  In this trickle down manner, the presence of Japanese barberry can lead to an increase in lyme disease cases.  Fortunately for Woodland Dunes, we also have healthy populations of fox, weasels, and other predators which keep the mouse population in check.  There are other indirect affects of invasive trees and shrubs and new ones are being discovered and researched everyday.

I was fortunate to attend the inaugural Southeast Wisconsin Conservation Summit recently.  This amazing gathering of individuals working within the natural world throughout Wisconsin provided the opportunity to network, share ideas, information, projects, and gain an understanding of things we may not have even thought about ourselves. 

I was familiar with the idea that buckthorn was bad for the plant community because it can overtake an area and actually emit a toxin into the soil which prevents other plants from growing around it.  However, I never thought about its impact beyond plants before attending the summit.  As I watched the leaves of other trees gracefully fall to the ground to create shelter for overwintering insects and provide future nutrients for emerging spring plants, I never thought about negative impacts of invasive species leaves.  Linh Nguyen, a student at Carroll University, presented information on the effects of buckthorn leaves and the survival rate of amphibians.  Buckthorn produces a metabolite called emodin which leaches out of the decaying leaves and is present in high concentrations in temporal ponds in the spring.  This kills tadpoles as their livers aren’t fully developed and cannot filter it.  Susan Lewis, also from Carroll University, presented research on the effects of buckthorn leaves on amphipods.  Amphipods are natures recyclers, shredding and decomposing leaf litter in waterbodies.  Her research showed that amphipods preferred to eat buckthorn leaves over ash tree leaves (the two dominate tree species in the study area).  However, the buckthorn diet lead to higher mortality and lower body mass.  

Examples like these remind us why it is good to step back once in a while and think about the whole picture. Fortunately, even if we are just removing invasive species because of its affect on the surrounding plant community, we are also benefiting the entire ecosystem in ways we aren’t even aware of.  This just makes our work even more important and re-energizes us to keep fighting the good fight.  
Jennifer Klein, CA®

photo- common buckthorn branch with berries

Ripples 11/02/17

In addition to pleasant temperatures and colorful foliage, autumn is the time when many plants, having stored the abundant energy from the sun, produce their seeds.  Seeds seem so ordinary, but are really little miracles of reproduction.  Plants have developed many different ways of packaging up their genetic fingerprints, along with a bit of nutrition to sustain their offspring for a while as they start their new lives, and, they come in armored packaging in many cases.  Some seeds just fall from their parents to lie on the ground in hope of landing in a suitable spot, while others are equipped with some means- wings or parachutes to help them fly, or spring-loaded pods to eject them to new soil, or even hooks with which to latch onto passing animals.  In these ways, they spread over the landscape, an advantage to their species in case a disaster happens in one location they inhabit.

photo of kids dropping milkweed seeds from the observation tower

Dropping milkweed seeds from the tower

Children love to learn, and often when they visit our center in fall we talk to them about seeds and how they are dispersed.  We’re fortunate to have many milkweed plants growing around our headquarters which now sport ripe pods full of seeds, each equipped with it’s own parachute.  The culmination of our lessons about seeds is to climb our observation tower with the children so that they can help the milkweeds spread by launching their seeds into the wind.  I think launching the parachutes and watching them float away is as much fun for the teachers as it is for the kids- or perhaps it’s the fun of seeing the children enjoy the activity so much.  As always, we hope this fun makes them think a little about how interesting and special such simple things are.  Children have the ability to find the interest and enjoyment of such things- even the colors and sounds and smells of the leaves on the ground in ways that we adults no longer take time for, but should.  Our educators, both staff and volunteers, realize that and sometimes the lesson plans are forsaken in lieu of something unexpected and really interesting, like leaves on the ground.

Our land restoration staff and helpers also spend a lot of time thinking about seeds – mostly how to enrich the diversity of species of wildflowers and wetland plants in areas we’re trying to fix ecologically.  Trying to anticipate what plants to grow and how to plant them is a challenge.  Sometimes those specialized seeds defy the workings of a broadcast seeder or grain drill, and have to be spread by hand over fields.

photo of a squirrel trail

squirrel trail

Sometimes we welcome the help of non-human volunteers to assist with seeding.  In swamp forests, black walnut trees are often a component of the overstory, and are one species that can be used to replace ash trees imperiled by the emerald ash borer.  One of our supporters brought a bucket of walnuts for planting, but they need to have the husks removed and the nuts buried, a messy job.  At the same time we noticed a gray squirrel, or squirrels, often bringing walnuts across Columbus Street into the preserve.  This time of year squirrels work hard at gathering walnuts, removing the husks with their teeth, and burying them in various locations to hide them from others, saving them for later meals.  The squirrels often bury more than they need, or forget where they put them, but the result is a scattering of walnut saplings in a few years.  These squirrels, along with other animals, have worn a trail in the mowed turf alongside the street where they enter the woods.  Not being ashamed at recruiting their help, we deposited a bucket of walnuts at the forest edge along their trail.  Sure enough the walnuts disappeared, and we assume some happy squirrels, thinking they have struck the motherlode, took and distributed the nuts into the woods for us.  This will, we hope, add another native species to that part of the forest, and over time will benefit the squirrels too.  I’m sure a few nuts are eaten along the way, but we are not above bribing our volunteers when necessary!

There are many such interactions among the millions of plants and animals that call the 1,400 acres of Woodland Dunes home.  Being aware, and being a part of that, is as interesting and fun for we adults as it is for the children who visit.

photos- Jessica Johnsrud, Education Coordinator, with children releasing milkweed seeds off the tower, trail off Columbus St. used by squirrels to hide food in the forest.

Jim Knickelbine

Executive Director

Woodland Dunes Nature Center and Preserve

Ripples 10/26/17

As the reality of the fall season sets in, there is much to be enjoyed.  At the Nature Center, groups of children visit daily, being taught by our naturalists, staff and volunteers.  Sometimes they are little angels, sometimes they are distracted and antsy, but they add life to our center, which would be too quiet without them.  They learn about trees, deer, owls, and how birds use their beaks to do amazing things. They do this outside where each day they encounter things which are unplanned.  They do so on nice sunny days, and cloudy cool ones, and learn that it’s good to be outdoors even when the weather isn’t perfect.  They see the last of the wildflowers bloom, the last of the butterflies, and perhaps they notice drab little birds in the bushes.  They probably don’t, which is fine with the birds- they don’t want to be noticed this time of year.

photo of saw-whet owl banded at Woodland Dunes Nature Center

Saw-whet owl

For most species, the big push of fall migration is past now.  There are still a few warblers and kinglets, flocks of robins and blackbirds, but more and more we see the late migrants – juncos, pine siskins, and purple finches, and soon – tree sparrows.  The northern waterfowl have yet to make big movements into our area or perhaps are just starting.  Sandhill cranes are still around, picking at the fields for whatever food they can find, but I think they have one eye on the weather now and are ready to move when needed, just like the geese.  If the weather is above freezing without snow cover they are fine, but they are poised to fly south just enough to stay in their comfort zone.  Great blue herons and kingfishers are the same- as long as water is liquid and fish can be caught, they are fine, but they will head out at the first sign of icing… if they are smart.  

This fall’s weather wasn’t the best in terms of saw-whet owl movements here.  There were a few good days, and many that were less than ideal.  Although we haven’t caught as many as we’d hoped, we did recover three that were banded by others: one which was banded last year at Stevens Point, and two sporting new bands for which the original data has not yet been submitted.  All three appear to have been banded at different locations based on the band numbers, and we’re looking forward to finding out where there journeys have taken them.  Of the well over 5,000 owls caught and banded at Woodland Dunes,  birds have been re-caught in many places, from Quebec and Ontario in Canada, Minnesota and Michigan, and south to Ohio and even North Carolina. 

Trees weren’t colorful this fall, and now strong winds quickly strip them of their leaves.  The transition from an October landscape to that of November seems sudden each year.  I’m grateful for the red of the dogwoods at the marsh edge, and the green and gold of the conifers as they display this year’s new growth while at the same time ejecting their old needles, which will rain down and help acidify the soil.  Cued by these changes, we meow mix the last preparations for pollinator and grassland plantings.  Final weed treatments followed by seeding are being done now, the start of a five year practice in patience as the wildflowers and grasses slowly adjust to the soil, growing their huge root systems and finally blooming.  They will fly under the radar as we wait and fret, wondering if we did something wrong.  Then, with the help of some mowing or burning they’ll suddenly appear.  Trees and shrubs seem to require less understanding because they are more visible and easier to understand.  Still, they too, pause to grow a strong foundation before they can reach upward.

Autumn is a busy time in the natural world as wildlife of all kinds prepares for winter.  So much can be learned from the life around us, especially here on the Lakeshore.  We are fortunate for the opportunity.

photo – Saw-whet owl banded at Woodland Dunes

Ripples 10/19/17

photo of a hoverfly on a dandelion

Hoverfly

We associate harvest with autumn.  Traditionally, harvesting was primarily focused on food- bringing in crops, hunting game, and that is still true today at least to some extent.  Now, our markets are full of seemingly unlimited supplies of food year round. It’s always harvest time somewhere.  We are so fortunate that farmers are skilled at what they do.

Thinking about it, autumn is also a time for gathering, if you’ll allow me the notion, our health and well-being.  Autumn is the favorite time of year for most of the people I know, and this fall has been outstanding.  Cooler temperatures incite us to go outdoors and be more active.  Trails, our Lakeshore, even city streets are at their most attractive for those who walk or bike.  We immediately think of the colors of leaves, but there is much more.  Late-blooming flowers are beautiful, and greatly appreciated.  Birds we haven’t seen since spring are back, either passing through on their way south, or returning to stay for winter.  Even better, the day length and intensity of sunlight are similar to that experienced in spring, and I think that triggers some of the birds to sing even though they’ve been quiet for the last couple of months.

I associate the sounds of autumn with the goodness of the season, and hearing them triggers positive associations.  The calls of geese overhead, even though we can hear them during the summer, seem sweeter now.  The chips of yellow-rumped warblers and the kissing sounds the juncos evoke a warm familiarity.  The chirps of purple finches and the zips of pine siskins are back again.  In the evening, as the birds prepare to take flight on another leg of their migration south, white-crowned and white-throated sparrows call excitedly in the dusk.  Robins patrol lawns and bushes everywhere, sometimes by the hundreds, communicating with their distinct call notes.  Tiny kinglets utter their tiny songs- a high-pitched dee dee dee.  On sunny days a few grasshoppers rasp away, calling for mates.  And in the evening a cricket or two still calls out, along with the whinnies of screech owls and the low hoots of the great-horneds.

We all know these last pleasant days of fall are numbered, and that they are gifts.  One should take advantage of the gifts offered by nature- it’s foolish not to.  These gifts of nature can be harvested actively, or passively.  If one can’t get out for a ride or a hike, one can gather in the goodness by just sitting quietly- listening and experiencing without thinking too much.  One may not get the benefits of exercise that way, but bathing in the warmth and the sounds of a late autumn day counteract the tension we accumulate in our stressed-out world.  And perhaps help us focus on what is really important in life.     

photo- a hoverfly enjoys a late-blooming dandelion

Ripples 10/12/17

Autumn is probably the busiest time in our preserve.  One might think that with the growing season behind us, things would settle down.  In truth, September through November brings hundreds of children visiting for field trips, and hundreds of acres of habitat needing attention in preparation for next year’s growing season.  We are teachers and wildlife farmers.  We plant crops of trees and wildflowers, and raise livestock of songbirds, bugs, and frogs and deer mice. We are happy to do what we do, and to share it with others. 

photo of primrose blooming on the prairie

Primrose blooming

Like farmers, we are dependent on the soil and weather.  We try to match what we plant with appropriate places on the land, and then we pray for a little help from the weather to help things along.  Its been a good year, and inspired by that good fortune, we are ambitiously planning for next year.  In our forests, we’ve been pleased with the growth of the trees and shrubs planted the last several years. At this stage, we tend to them mostly to protect them from deer.  Now, we’re preparing to order more than 2,000 trees and shrubs to be planted next year in areas susceptible to the dreaded emerald ash borer.  This winter and spring, we’ll be removing invasive shrubs to make room for the plantings, which is made possible by a grant from the US Forest Service- new partners in our efforts to best manage our special place in the world.  We are very grateful for the help.

Along the East and West Twin Rivers, with the help of the Wisconsin DNR, we will be sowing seeds of native wetland plants- sedges, rushes, and wildflowers, in areas where invasive Phragmites grass was removed.  Like other habitats, wetlands thrive on a diversity of plants, so the more we can enhance that diversity with native species, the more wildlife, including waterfowl and fisheries, will benefit.

In several large fields we are tending to thousands of milkweed plants for the butterflies, and sowing the seeds of many other native wildflowers that they and other pollinators will benefit from.  Other fields large and small are being prepared for planting next year. In the last couple of weeks we’ve also planted 1,300 potted wildflowers around our headquarters, in our butterfly garden, and along Mariner’s Trail, with the help of many high school students and volunteers.

Fall is an excellent time for such work.  It is the time when many plants shed their seeds which naturally fall to the soil where freezing and thawing buries them over the winter.  They need a period of cold in order to mature and set their biological alarm clocks for germination in the spring.  The cool weather also reinvigorates our own physiology, making this a much more pleasant and effective time to get work done.  

There are so many opportunities to make things better in this world.  I suppose its a matter of comparison- certainly at one time our area was covered with native plants and abundant wildlife.  Then that was altered – the “cutover” of Wisconsin is a great example where forests were nearly removed one section at a time.  Thankfully, everything wasn’t cut, and nature has a capacity to rebound – aided by us. 

I saw an old photograph of my neighborhood a few days ago- the landscape was stark and barren, nearly treeless, bisected by dirt roads and dotted with a few houses.  Now there are more houses, but there are also significantly more trees and shrubs than there were 100 years ago.  A lot of the shrubs are non-native invasives, but over time those can be removed and replaced with better ones.  The same goes for Woodland Dunes- there is actually more forest within the bounds of the preserve than there was in 1938, and there is more than we can do to improve it.  

Everyone, even if they only own a flower pot, can be a wildlife farmer.  But you have to be comfortable with doing the work of sowing while the wild things do the reaping- which is just fine with us.

photo- a field at Woodland Dunes planted with wildflowers, evening primrose and tall coneflowers